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Knowledge integration, the practice of knowledge management in small and medium enterprises

Preface...................................................................................................................V
1 Knowledge Management: More than a Buzzword ..........................................1
Fons Wijnhoven
1.1 Introduction .............................................................................................1
1.2 The Relevance of Knowledge Management for High-tech Small and
Medium Sized Firms...............................................................................2
1.3 Knowledge Management – What Is It About? ........................................3
1.3.1 Knowledge Management versus Competence Management............3
1.3.2 Approaches to Knowledge Management .........................................3
1.3.3 Levels of Knowledge Management .................................................5
1.4 What Aspects Are Related to Knowledge? .............................................6
1.4.1 Content in Knowledge Identification and Acquisition Processes ....7
1.4.2 Utilization of Knowledge in Contexts .............................................9
1.4.3 Knowledge Flows ............................................................................9
1.4.4 Knowledge Media..........................................................................10
1.5 The Knowledge Integration Context .....................................................12
1.6 Outline of this Book ..............................................................................13
References ...................................................................................................15
2 Knowledge Integration by SMEs – Framework ............................................17
Jeroen Kraaijenbrink, Doron Faran, Aharon Hauptman
2.1 Introduction ...........................................................................................17
2.2 High-tech SMEs: Characteristics and Differences ................................18
2.3 Types and Sources of Knowledge .........................................................19
2.4 KI Processes and Activities ...................................................................22
2.5 KI Problems and Solutions....................................................................25
2.6 Summary and Conclusions ....................................................................27
References ...................................................................................................27
3 Knowledge Integration by SMEs - Practice ...................................................29
Jeroen Kraaijenbrink, Aard Groen, Fons Wijnhoven
3.1 Introduction ...........................................................................................29
3.2 Analysing KI in SMEs: Research Framework ......................................29
3.3 Research Method...................................................................................31
3.4 Results ...................................................................................................32
3.4.1 NPD Process ..................................................................................33
3.4.2 Sources...........................................................................................33
3.4.3 KI Process......................................................................................35
3.4.4 Problems ........................................................................................36
3.4.5 Solutions ........................................................................................37
3.4.6 Match .............................................................................................38
VIII Table of Contents
3.5 Differences between SMEs ...................................................................39
3.6 Conclusions and Implications ...............................................................41
References...................................................................................................43
Appendix: Questionnaire.............................................................................43
4 Organizing the Toolbox - Typology and Alignment of KI Solutions ...........47
Doron Faran, Aharon Hauptman, Yoel Raban
4.1 Introduction ...........................................................................................47
4.2 Definitions and Principles of the Typology...........................................48
4.3 Typology of KI Tools and Techniques..................................................50
4.3.1 Activities for Latent Knowledge ...................................................51
4.3.2 Activities for Explicit Knowledge .................................................52
4.3.3 Activities for Tacit Knowledge .....................................................58
4.3.4 Motivating Activities.....................................................................58
4.4 Knowledge Integration Strategies .........................................................59
4.5 SME Suitability.....................................................................................62
4.6 Conclusions ...........................................................................................62
References...................................................................................................64
5 Elicitation – Extracting Knowledge from Experts ........................................65
Antonie Jetter
5.1 Motivation and Introduction..................................................................65
5.2 A Psychological Perspective on Knowledge Elicitation .......................65
5.2.1 Theoretical Background.................................................................65
5.2.2 Relevance for Knowledge Management ........................................68
5.3 Elicitation in Practice ............................................................................69
5.3.1 Identification of Experts ................................................................69
5.3.2 Activation and Capture of Knowledge...........................................70
5.3.3 Knowledge Interpretation and Documentation ..............................71
5.4 Implementation Experience...................................................................72
5.4.1 Identification of Experts at CEROBEAR ......................................73
5.4.2 Activation and Capture: Free Association & Episodic Interviews.73
5.4.3 Interpretation and Documentation: Building an Ontology.............74
5.5 Discussion and Conclusions..................................................................75
References...................................................................................................75
6 Codification – Knowledge Maps .....................................................................77
Antonie Jetter
6.1 Introduction ...........................................................................................77
6.2 Knowledge Codification and Knowledge Maps....................................77
6.3 Types of Knowledge Maps ...................................................................79
6.3.1 Hierarchical or Radial Knowledge Structure Maps: .........................
Concept Maps and Mind Maps ......................................................80
6.3.2 Networked Knowledge Structure Maps: Causal Maps ..................81
6.3.3 Knowledge Source Maps ...............................................................82
6.3.4 Knowledge Flow Maps..................................................................83
Table of Contents IX
6.4 Case Study: Knowledge Maps to Improve NPD...................................85
6.4.1 Process Assessment .......................................................................85
6.4.2 Improved Processes: AIXTRON’s Knowledge Application Map 87
6.5 Discussion and Conclusion ...................................................................88
References ...................................................................................................89
7 Detection – Electronic Knowledge Retrieval..................................................91
Dina Franzen
7.1 Introduction ...........................................................................................91
7.2 IR Systems for Knowledge Detection ...................................................91
7.2.1 Traditional IR Search Methods ......................................................92
7.2.2 Information Retrieval and the WWW............................................93
7.2.3 New Impulses in IR Systems .........................................................94
7.3 Implementation at a High-tech SME.....................................................96
7.3.1 The High-tech SME: CEROBEAR................................................96
7.3.2 Focus: Development of a Customer-Specific Ontology ................97
7.3.3 Results and Evaluation...................................................................98
7.4 Discussion and Conclusion ...................................................................99
References .................................................................................................100
8 Assessment – Making Sense of It All ............................................................101
Doron Faran
8.1 Introduction .........................................................................................101
8.2 What Is Knowledge Assessment? .......................................................102
8.3 Critical Analysis of Assessment Practices...........................................103
8.3.1 Theoretical Background and Practical Framework......................103
8.3.2 Alignment of Available Practices ................................................104
8.4 The Decision-Validity-Tracking (DVT) Method ................................105
8.5 Lessons Learned from the Implementation at Optibase ......................110
8.6 Conclusions .........................................................................................112
References .................................................................................................113
9 Transfer - Knowledge Transfer in Networks ...............................................115
Aard Groen
9.1 Introduction .........................................................................................115
9.2 Theory on Knowledge Transfer in NPD Processes .............................115
9.2.1 The Character of Knowledge and Networks in Transfer
Processes ......................................................................................116
9.2.3 Some Consequences of Cognitive Distance for Networking of
Small Firms ..................................................................................117
9.3 The WAP Project, an Example of Knowledge Transfer in a Network 119
9.3.1 Context of the Project ..................................................................119
9.3.3 Knowledge Transfer Mechanisms ...............................................121
9.4 Conclusions .........................................................................................124
References .................................................................................................125
X Table of Contents
10 Motivating – Incentive Systems for Knowledge Provision........................127
Hannah Zaunmüller
10.1 Introduction .......................................................................................127
10.2 Design Areas of Incentive Systems for Knowledge Provision..........128
10.2.1 Definition of Knowledge Goals .................................................128
10.2.2 Definition of the Application Area ............................................129
10.2.3 Definition of Incentive Tools.....................................................129
10.2.4 Measurement and Evaluation of Employee Performance ..........130
10.3 Implementation of Incentive Systems ...............................................130
10.3.1 Analysis of the Status-quo .........................................................130
10.3.2 Concept Development and Elaboration .....................................132
10.3.3 System Introduction...................................................................134
10.3.4 System Checking .......................................................................134
10.4 Case Study at HEAD Acoustics ........................................................135
10.4.1 HEAD Acoustics and the Focus of the Project ..........................135
10.4.2 Results .......................................................................................136
10.5 Summary and Conclusion .................................................................140
References.................................................................................................140
11 Supporting Knowledge Integration at SMEs – The KINX Portal ...........143
Charo Elorrieta, Juan Pedro Lopez , Fons Wijnhoven
11.1 Introduction .......................................................................................143
11.2 Information Services and Scope of the KINX Portal ........................145
11.3 Knowledge Integration Portal Description........................................146
11.3.1 The KINX Portal Public Area....................................................148
11.3.2 The Private Area ........................................................................150
11.3.3 The Administration Area ...........................................................155
11.4 Portal Development Process..............................................................156
11.5 Conclusions and Discussion..............................................................157
References.................................................................................................158
12 Supporting Knowledge Integration at SMEs – Policies ............................161
Yoel Raban
12.1 Introduction .......................................................................................161
12.2 Reasons for Supporting KI in SMEs .................................................161
12.3 Profiles of KI Support Measures for SMEs.......................................162
12.4 Usage of Selected KI Support Measures ...........................................167
12.5 The Effectiveness of KI Support Measures.......................................168
12.6 Summary and Recommendations ......................................................172
References.................................................................................................173
Table of Contents XI
13 Wrapping It All Up - Past, Present and Future of Knowledge
Integration....................................................................................................175
Hans-Horst Schröder
13.1 Introduction .......................................................................................175
13.2 Evaluation of KI - What Does It Promise and Does It Keep What It
Promises? ..........................................................................................176
13.2.1 The Theoretical Perspective.......................................................177
13.2.2 The Empirical Perspective .........................................................179
13.2.3 The Tools Perspective................................................................181
13.3 The Further Development of KI Requirements and Opportunities
for Improvement ...............................................................................185
13.3.1 Conceptual Improvements .........................................................185
13.3.2 Instrumental Improvements .......................................................186
13.4 Outlook - The Future of KI ...............................................................188
References .................................................................................................190
Biographical Information about the Authors .................................................193
List of Authors' Addresses................................................................................197
Index ...................................................................................................................201

antonie jetter - 2006

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