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Strategic Knowledge Management Technology

Foreword ........................................................................................................vii
Preface .......................................................................................................... ix
Chapter I
Approaches to Knowledge Management ................................................... 1
Introduction .............................................................................................. 1
The Economic School .............................................................................. 2
Intellectual Capital Accounting ...................................................... 2
Intellectual Capital Management ................................................... 6
Knowledge Market Framework...................................................... 9
The Organizational School .....................................................................14
Managing Common Knowledge ...................................................14
Socialization-Externalization-Combination-Internalization
Process ......................................................................................21
Managing Knowledge Workers....................................................27
The Strategic School ..............................................................................32
Codification and Personalization Strategy .................................33
Stock, Flow and Growth Strategy ................................................35
Barriers to Knowledge Management .....................................................38
Cultural Barriers............................................................................38
Error Barriers ................................................................................40
Case Study: PhotoCure ..........................................................................41
Chapter II
Resource-Based Strategy for Knowledge Management ........................43
Introduction ............................................................................................43
Resource-Based Theory of the Firm .....................................................43
Capabilities and Resources ..........................................................44
Resource-Based Strategy ..............................................................50
Activity-Based Theory of the Firm ................................................53
Knowledge as a Strategic Resource ......................................................55
Characteristics of Knowledge ......................................................58
The Knowledge-Strategy Link ......................................................72
Value Configurations for Business Organizations ..................................76
The Firm as a Value Chain ...........................................................77
The Firm as a Value Shop .............................................................78
The Firm as a Value Network .......................................................82
Comparison of Value Configurations ..........................................84
Case Study: Nokia ..................................................................................85
Chapter III
IS/IT in Knowledge Management ..............................................................87
Introduction ............................................................................................87
Knowledge Management Processes .....................................................90
Knowledge Creation ......................................................................90
Knowledge Storage and Retrieval ...............................................92
Knowledge Transfer ......................................................................95
Knowledge Application .................................................................96
Knowledge Management Systems ........................................................98
Requirements from Knowledge Management ..............................98
Benefits from Knowledge Management Systems ...................... 101
Contingent Approach to Knowledge Management Systems ... 102
Examples of Software Vendors .................................................. 104
Systems Support for Emergent Knowledge Processes............. 106
Expert Systems ............................................................................. 110
An Initial Project for Systems Planning ................................... 113
Enablers of Knowledge Management Systems......................... 118
Knowledge Management Positions ..................................................... 121
Chief Knowledge Officer ........................................................... 121
Chief Information Officer .......................................................... 130
Case Study: Lindh Stabell Horten and Schjødt ................................... 140
Chapter IV
Stages of Growth in Knowledge Management Technology ................ 145
Introduction ......................................................................................... 145
Stages of Growth Models ................................................................... 146
Guttman Scaling for Cumulative Growth ................................. 149
The KMT Stage Model ....................................................................... 151
Benchmark Variables for Each Stage ...................................... 158
The Case of Law Firms ...................................................................... 168
Lawyers as Knowledge Workers ............................................... 169
Law Firm Change ....................................................................... 170
Knowledge Categories ............................................................... 170
Implications for Systems Design ................................................ 176
Knowledge Management Matrix ............................................... 181
Empirical Tests of the KMT Stage Model .......................................... 185
Law Firm Survey in Norway ...................................................... 185
Law Firm Survey in Australia .................................................... 198
Comparison of Norwegian and Australian Law Firms ........... 199
Linking the KMT Stage Model to Other Models ................................ 207
Intellectual Capital Management and Stage Model ................ 207
Value Shop and Stage Model .................................................... 209
Knowledge Management Matrix and Stage Model ................. 210
Case Study: Linklaters ........................................................................ 213
Chapter V
IS/IT Strategy for Knowledge Management ......................................... 216
Introduction ......................................................................................... 216
Strategy Analysis ................................................................................ 223
Describing Current IS/IT Situation ........................................... 223
Describing Current and Desired Business Situation .............. 225
Knowledge Management Analysis ............................................ 230
Analyzing Needs for Change ..................................................... 231
Strategy Choice ................................................................................... 231
Identifying Alternative Actions .................................................. 232
Selecting Appropriate Actions ................................................... 240
Knowledge Management Actions .............................................. 245
Making the Plan ......................................................................... 247
Strategy Implementation ..................................................................... 252
Implementing Plan ...................................................................... 253
Barriers to Implementation ........................................................ 255
Knowledge Management Technology Architecture................. 261
Evaluating Results ...................................................................... 263
The Y Model in Strategic Management .............................................. 265
Case Study: The Opera ....................................................................... 268
Chapter VI
Conclusions ................................................................................................ 270
References .................................................................................................. 271
Minicases .................................................................................................... 280
About the Author ....................................................................................... 290
Index ............................................................................................................ 291

Petter Gottschalk - 2004

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