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Beyond Knowledge Management-Sharing Expertise

Preface xi
Acknowledgments xix
I Overview and Background 1
1 Why Organizations Don’t ‘‘Know What They Know’’: Cognitive
and Motivational Factors Affecting the Transfer of Expertise 3
Pamela J. Hinds and Jeffrey Pfeffer
1.1 Cognitive Limitations 4
1.2 Motivational Limitations 10
1.3 Overcoming Barriers to Transferring Expertise 17
1.4 The Role of Technology 21
1.5 Conclusion 22
2 A Critical Evaluation of Knowledge Management Practices 27
Marleen Huysman and Dirk de Wit
2.1 Knowledge Sharing and Organizational Learning 29
2.2 Introduction to the Research 33
2.3 Knowledge Sharing in Practice 35
2.4 Analysis: Identifying Traps and Ways to Avoid Them 41
2.5 Concluding Remarks 51
3 Coming to the Crossroads of Knowledge, Learning, and
Technology: Integrating Knowledge Management and Workplace
Learning 57
Bill Penuel and Andrew Cohen
3.1 Different Learning Processes for Different Situations 58
3.2 Knowledge Management Processes That Support Newcomer
Learning 61
3.3 Knowledge Management Processes That Support Expert
Learning 67
3.4 Conclusion 73
II Studies of Expertise Sharing in Organizations 77
4 Emergent Expertise Sharing in a New Community 81
Geraldine Fitzpatrick
4.1 The Case 83
4.2 The Work 86
4.3 Bootstrapping through Getting the Work Done 91
4.4 Expertise as Embodied Knowledge 101
4.5 Conclusion 106
5 Sharing Expertise: Challenges for Technical Support 111
Volkmar Pipek, Joachim Hinrichs, and Volker Wulf
5.1 Expertise Sharing in Maintenance Engineering 113
5.2 Expertise Sharing in a Network of Trainers and
Consultants 121
5.3 Discussion 128
5.4 Conclusion 133
6 Locating Expertise: Design Issues for an Expertise Locator
System 137
Kate Ehrlich
6.1 Leveraging Knowledge in an Organization 138
6.2 Requirements for the Design of an Expertise Locator 142
6.3 Expertise Locator Design 145
6.4 Discussion 155
7 Who’s There? The Knowledge-Mapping Approximation
Project 159
Mark S. Ackerman, James S. Boster, Wayne G. Lutters, and David
W. McDonald
7.1 The KMA Project: Looking for Approximation
Techniques 161
7.2 Pilot Study Site 162
7.3 Data Collection 164
7.4 Findings from the Pilot Study 170
7.5 Conclusions and Future Work 175
vi Contents
8 Enabling Communities of Practice at EADS Airbus 179
Roland Haas, Wilfried Aulbur, and Sunil Thakar
8.1 Knowledge Management 179
8.2 Communities of Practice 184
8.3 A Web-Based System for Collecting and Distributing
Knowledge 191
8.4 Lessons Learned and Experiences Gathered 195
8.5 Summary 197
III Exploring Technology for Sharing Expertise 199
9 Using a Room Metaphor to Ease Transitions in Groupware 203
Saul Greenberg and Mark Roseman
9.1 Gaps in Groupware 204
9.2 Features Inherent in a Room Metaphor 207
9.3 TeamWave Workplace 214
9.4 Transitions between Individual and Group Work 221
9.5 Transitions between Synchronous and Asynchronous
Collaboration 226
9.6 The Transition from Being Aware of Who Is Around to
Working Together in Real Time 233
9.7 The Transition from a Technical Space to a Social Place for
Work 238
9.8 Related Work 245
9.9 Summary 248
10 NewsMate: Providing Timely Knowledge to Mobile and Distributed
News Journalists 257
Henrik Fagrell
10.1 Use Scenario 259
10.2 The NewsMate System 265
10.3 Related Systems 268
10.4 Discussion 270
11 Supporting Informal Communities of Practice within
Organizations 275
R. T. Jim Eales
11.1 Related Work 277
Contents vii
11.2 Learning in the Wild 278
11.3 Collaborative Support Systems 279
11.4 The Importance of Demonstrations 288
11.5 Outline of a Collaborative Support System 291
11.6 Design Issues 293
11.7 Conclusion 294
12 Knowledge Communities: Online Environments for Supporting
Knowledge Management and Its Social Context 299
Thomas Erickson and Wendy A. Kellogg
12.1 Knowledge Work as Social Work 300
12.2 Knowledge Communities 305
12.3 Concluding Remarks 322
13 Expert-Finding Systems for Organizations: Problem and Domain
Analysis and the DEMOIR Approach 327
Dawit Yimam-Seid and Alfred Kobsa
13.1 Problem Analysis 328
13.2 Automatic Expert Finders 333
13.3 Positioning Automatic Expert Finders 336
13.4 Domain Analysis 338
13.5 The DEMOIR Approach 348
13.6 Conclusion and Future Research353
14 Automated Discovery and Mapping of Expertise 359
Mark Maybury, Ray D’Amore, and David House
14.1 Previous Work 360
14.2 Evolving Framework for Expertise Management 362
14.3 MITRE’s MII Expert Finder 365
14.4 MII XperNet 371
14.5 Lessons Learned/Future Work 378
15 OWL: A System for the Automated Sharing of Expertise 383
Frank Linton
15.1 Recommender Systems 384
15.2 User Observation 387
15.3 Individualized Recommendations 391
15.4 Discussion 395
viii Contents
15.5 Further Work 397
15.6 Summary 400
List of Contributors 403
Index 407
Contents ix

Mark S. Ackerman, Volkmar Pipek, and Volker Wulf - 2003

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